CORRECTIVE AND PREVENTIVE MEASURES FOR THE PREVENTION OF MYOPIA IN STUDENTS IN A UNIVERSITY ENVIRONMENT
ARTICLE PDF

Keywords

myopia
psychocorrection
physical activity

How to Cite

Horoshko, V. I., Khomenko, Y. G., & Horoshko, A. I. (2024). CORRECTIVE AND PREVENTIVE MEASURES FOR THE PREVENTION OF MYOPIA IN STUDENTS IN A UNIVERSITY ENVIRONMENT. Clinical and Preventive Medicine, (1), 106-113. https://doi.org/10.31612/2616-4868.1.2024.13

Abstract

Introduction. The relevance of the conducted research is determined, on the one hand, by the unfavorable epidemiological situation regarding myopia among students, and on the other hand, by extremely incomplete knowledge of the mechanisms that mediate its development, progression, and stabilization.

The aim of this study is to carry out a comprehensive analysis of factors that contribute to the development of myopia, as well as the development of methods for assessing the risk of its occurrence, prevention of progression and psychological correction of myopia, research on the role of physical exertion in the prevention of visual fatigue and psychological correction of myopia with the help of therapeutic exercises.

Materials and methods. The study covered a representative sample of students from different regions of Ukraine. The number of participants was determined on the basis of statistical calculations to achieve sufficient representativeness of the results – 62 first- and second-year students of the Yuri Kondratyuk Poltava Polytechnic National University. The study of the peculiarities of the stability of attention and the speed of attention switching of myopic and normally ophthalmologically healthy students using the "Correction test" method by B. Burdon.

Results and discussion. Analyzing the results of the projective method, we can note that myopic individuals have more often (25%) the influence of the family in their lives, in contrast to healthy individuals (10%). Differences are also observed in the indicators of anxiety, in particular, myopic people show more anxiety in relation to society and feel insecurity (41%), in contrast to healthy people (23%). At the same time, there are insignificant differences in openness to communication – myopic people show a high level (56%) in contrast to healthy people (67%). Among students with a reduced relative reserve of accommodation, a decrease in the static endurance of the back muscles was more often observed. It was 17.74% for boys and 22.58% for girls. 32.25% of boys and 77.41% of girls had incorrect postures. To increase the static endurance of the muscles of the back, neck, and press, a technique was developed that included two repetitions of 2-3 exercises for each muscle group with a short interval between repetitions.

Conclusions. 1. Refractive disorders corresponding to mild and moderate myopia include restructuring of function at the level of the retina, visual pathways, and cerebral cortex. 2. Under conditions of the presence of myopia in a person, changes occur in the functioning of both the visual sensory system and higher nervous activity, in particular, attention. 3. The presence of myopia is also related to the psychological characteristics of the individual, in particular, the level of anxiety, the degree of independence and the feeling of attachment to the family, the search for protection from society and a safe environment for self-development. 4. Corrective and preventive measures should include a set of measures, such as psychophysiological stimulation of visual analyzers, selection of individual modes of performance of visual loads, increasing the variety of methods of intra-family interaction. 5. The analysis of the results of the study in the university environment of the impact of physical exercises on the problem of myopia among students showed the high effectiveness of physical activity and adapted physical exercises for the prevention of the development of myopia among students.

https://doi.org/10.31612/2616-4868.1.2024.13
ARTICLE PDF

References

Bourne, R., Steinmetz, J. D., Flaxman, S., Briant, P. S., Taylor, H. R., Resnikoff, S., ... & Tareque, M. I. (2021). Trends in prevalence of blindness and distance and near vision impairment over 30 years: an analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study. The Lancet global health, 9(2), e130-e143.

Dolgin, E. (2015). The myopia boom. Nature, 519(7543), 276.

Donovan, L., Sankaridurg, P., Ho, A., Naduvilath, T., Smith III, E. L., & Holden, B. A. (2012). Myopia progression rates in urban children wearing single-vision spectacles. Optometry and vision science: official publication of the American Academy of Optometry, 89(1), 27.

Flitcroft, D. I. (2012). The complex interactions of retinal, optical and environmental factors in myopia aetiology. Progress in retinal and eye research, 31(6), 622-660.

Fricke, T. R., Jong, M., Naidoo, K. S., Sankaridurg, P., Naduvilath, T. J., Ho, S. M., ... & Resnikoff, S. (2018). Global prevalence of visual impairment associated with myopic macular degeneration and temporal trends from 2000 through 2050: systematic review, meta-analysis and modelling. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 102(7), 855-862.

Fusar‐Poli, P., Correll, C. U., Arango, C., Berk, M., Patel, V., & Ioannidis, J. P. (2021). Preventive psychiatry: a blueprint for improving the mental health of young people. World Psychiatry, 20(2), 200-221.

Guggenheim, J. A., Northstone, K., McMahon, G., Ness, A. R., Deere, K., Mattocks, C., ... & Williams, C. (2012). Time outdoors and physical activity as predictors of incident myopia in childhood: a prospective cohort study. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 53(6), 2856-2865.

He, X., Sankaridurg, P., Wang, J., Chen, J., Naduvilath, T., He, M., ... & Xu, X. (2022). Time outdoors in reducing myopia: a school-based cluster randomized trial with objective monitoring of outdoor time and light intensity. Ophthalmology, 129(11), 1245-1254.

Huang, J., Wen, D., Wang, Q., McAlinden, C., Flitcroft, I., Chen, H., ... & Qu, J. (2016). Efficacy comparison of 16 interventions for myopia control in children: a network meta-analysis. Ophthalmology, 123(4), 697-708.

Leng, T. S., Saimon, R., Rahman, M. M., Lian, H. S., John, N., Thai, L. L., & bin Arsad, N. (2021). Visual Health and Its Relationship with Screen Time Among School Children: A Cross-Sectional Study in Sarawak, Malaysia. International Journal of Online & Biomedical Engineering, 17(8).

Morgan, I. G., French, A. N., Ashby, R. S., Guo, X., Ding, X., He, M., & Rose, K. A. (2018). The epidemics of myopia: aetiology and prevention. Progress in retinal and eye research, 62, 134-149.

Souchet, A. D., Lourdeaux, D., Pagani, A., & Rebenitsch, L. (2023). A narrative review of immersive virtual reality’s ergonomics and risks at the workplace: cybersickness, visual fatigue, muscular fatigue, acute stress, and mental overload. Virtual Reality, 27(1), 19-50.

Souchet, A. D., Philippe, S., Lourdeaux, D., & Leroy, L. (2022). Measuring visual fatigue and cognitive load via eye tracking while learning with virtual reality head-mounted displays: A review. International Journal of Human–Computer Interaction, 38(9), 801-824.

Spillmann, L. (2020). Stopping the rise of myopia in Asia. Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, 258, 943-959.

Toh, S. H., Coenen, P., Howie, E. K., Mukherjee, S., Mackey, D. A., & Straker, L. M. (2019). Mobile touch screen device use and associations with musculoskeletal symptoms and visual health in a nationally representative sample of Singaporean adolescents. Ergonomics, 62(6), 778-793.

Toker, Ö. G., Elibol, N. T., Erentürk, Ö., Erdem, S., Behmen, M. B., & Bal, N. (2023). Effect of digital screen usage on the visual-vestibular system interaction. The Egyptian Journal of Otolaryngology, 39(1), 140.

Xu, T., Wang, B., Liu, H., Wang, H., Yin, P., Dong, W., ... & Zhou, M. (2020). Prevalence and causes of vision loss in China from 1990 to 2019: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. The Lancet Public Health, 5(12), e682-e691.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.